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阅读20篇详解第二篇

2019-03-15 667次
Passage 2
    Tens of thousands of 18-year-olds will graduate(毕业) this year and be handed meaningless diplomas(毕业文
凭). These diplomas won’t look any different from those awarded(授予) their luckier classmates. Their validity(有
效性) will be questioned(质疑) only when their employers(雇主) discover(发现) that these graduates are
semiliterate(半文盲).
    Eventually( 最 后 ) a fortunate( 幸 运 的 ) few will find their way into educational–repair
shops—adult–literacy(识字,有文化) programs, such as the one where I teach basic grammar(语法) and writing.There, high-school graduates and high-school dropouts(辍学者) pursuing(追求) graduate-equivalency(相等)   certificates(证书) will learn the skills they should have learned in school, They will also discover they have been  cheated(欺骗) by our educational system.
I will never forget(忘记) a teacher who got the attention(注意) of one of my children by revealing(揭露,显示)
the trump(王牌) card of failure. Our youngest, a world-class charmer(迷人的人), did little to develop his
intellectual(智力的) talents(天资,才能) but always got by(通过). Until Mrs. Stifter.
Our son was high-school senior(高年级学生) when he had her for English. ―He sits in the back of the room
talking to his friends.‖ she told me. ―Why don’t you move him to the front row(排)?‖ I urged(敦促), believing the
embarrassment(困窘) would get him to settle down(平静下来). Mrs. Stifter said, ―I don’t move seniors. I flunk
(使„不及格) them.‖ Our son’s academic(学术的) life flashed(闪现) before my eyes. No teacher had ever
threatened(威胁) him. By the time I got home I was feeling pretty(相当地) good about this. It was a radical(根本的;激进的) approach(方法) for these times, but, well, Why not? ―She’s going to flunk you.‖ I told my son. I did not
discuss(讨论) it any further. Suddenly English became a priority(优先权, 优先考虑的事) in his life. He finished
out the semester(学期) with an A.
I know one example doesn’t make a case(例子), but at night I see a parade(队列) of students who are angry
for having been passed along until they could no longer(不再) even pretend(假装) to keep up. Of average
intelligence(智力) or better, they eventually(最终) quit(放弃) school, concluding(得出结论,推断出) they were too
dumb(愚蠢的) to finish. ―I should have been held back(阻止),‖ is a comment(评论,话) I hear frequently(经常地).
Even sadder(更加悲伤的)are those students who are high-school graduates who say to me after a few weeks of
class, ―I don’t know how I ever got a high-school diploma.‖
Passing students who have not mastered(掌握) the work cheats(欺骗) them and the employers who expect(期
待) graduates to have basic skills. We excuse(为„辩解) this dishonest(不诚实的) behavior by saying kids(孩子)
can’t learn if they come from terrible(可怕的,糟糕的) environments. No one seems to stop to think that most kids
don’t put school first on their list(列表) unless they perceive(察觉,意识到) something is at risk. They’d rather(宁
愿) be sailing(航行).
Many students I see at night have decided to make education a priority. They are motivated(激发) by the
desire(愿望,欲望) for a better job or the need to hang on to(紧紧抓住) the one they’ve got. They have a healthy
fear(恐惧) of failure.
People of all ages can rise above(克服) their problems, but they need to have a reason to do so. Young people
generally don’t have the maturity(成熟) to value(重视) education in the same way my adult students value it. But
fear of failure can motivate both.
1. What is the subject(主题) of this essay(散文)?
A. view point(观点) on learning
B. a qualified(合格的) teacher
C. the importance of examination
D. the generation gap(代沟)
2. How did Mrs. Sifter get the attention(注意) of one of the author’s children?
A. flunking him
B. moving his seat
C. blaming(责备) him
D. playing card with him
3. The author believes that the most effective(有效的) way for a teacher is to______.
A. purify(净化) the teaching environments
B. set up(建立) cooperation(合作) between teachers and parents
C. hold back(阻止) student
D. motivate(激发) student
4. From the passage we can draw the conclusion that the authors’ attitude(态度) toward flunking is______.
A. negative(否定的,消极的) B. positive(肯定的,积极的)C. biased(偏见的) D. indifferent(冷漠的)
5. Judging from(根据„判断) the content(内容), this passage is probably written for______.
A. administrators(管理者)  B. students C. teachers  D. parents
词汇注释
diploma[] n. 毕业文凭,学位证书,执照
award[] vt. 授予,给予;判给,裁定 n. 奖,奖品
validity [] n. 有效(性),合法性
pursue[] vt. 追赶,追逐;追求,寻求;继续,从事
certificate[] n. 证(明)书,执照
reveal[] vt. 揭露,泄露;展现,显示
intellectual[] a. 智力的;需智力的;智力发达的 n.知识分子
urge[] vt. 催促,力劝;强烈要求;鼓励,激励 n. 迫切的要求,强烈的愿望
embarrass[] vt. 使窘迫,使尴尬
academic[] a. 学校的,学院的;学术的
radical[] a. 根本的,基本的,彻底的;激进的,极端的 n. 激进分子
priority[] n.优先(权),重点;优先考虑的事
parade[] n. 游行;检阅,阅兵 v. 游行,列队行进
pretend[] v. 假装,佯装
intelligence[] n. 智力,智慧;情报,消息
quit[] v. 离开,辞(职);停止,放弃
dumb[] a. 哑的,(因惊恐等)说不出话的;愚蠢的
perceive[] vt. 感觉,察觉;认识到,意识到,理解;认为
motivate[] vt. 作为„的动机;激励,激发
purify[] vt. 使纯净,净化
qualify[] v. (使)具有资格,(使)合格;限制,修正
blame[] vt. 指责,责怪;(on,onto)把„归咎于
全文翻译
今年,成千上万的 18 岁孩子将会毕业,他们将拿到毫无意义的毕业文凭。这些毕业证看起来和那些比
他们更幸运的同学获得的毕业证没有任何区别。只有当雇主们发现这些毕业生是半文盲时,他们毕业证的
有效性才会受到质疑。
最终,一些幸运的毕业生会选择参加补习班一一成人文化课,就像我教语法和写作的那个补习班一样。
在那里,高中毕业生以及为同等学力文凭努力的高中辍学学生将学习他们本该在学校课堂里学到的东西。
他们还会发现他们被我们的教育体制欺骗了。
我永远也不会忘记一位老师,她通过亮出不及格这张王牌引起了我一个孩子的注意。我们最小的孩子
极其惹人喜爱,他从来都不肯用功却总能蒙混过关。直到 Stifter 老师的出现,情况才开始转变。
我儿子是一个高中毕业班学生,Stifter 老师教他们英语。她告诉我说,“他坐在教室的后面和朋友聊天。”
“那你为什么不让他坐到前排来?”我强烈要求,认为尴尬会使他安静下来。Stifter 老师却说:“我不会给
 
毕业班的学生调座位,我要让他们不及格。”儿子的学习生涯在我眼前闪过,从来没有老师威胁过他。而当
我到家的时候却感觉很不错。虽然在这个年代该方法是激进的,但为什么不这么做呢?我告诉儿子,“她要
让你不及格。”我并没有进一步讨论这个问题。突然之间,英语变成了他生活中的头等要事。那个学期他得
了 A。
我知道一个例子并不能说明问题,但在夜校里我看到一些学生,他们原来总是能轻松过关,直到后来
根本无法跟上进度,哪怕假装也不行,对此他们耿耿于怀。这些学生的智力水平中等或中等偏上,但是最
终离开了学校,他们认为自己太愚笨而不能完成学业。“我早应当遭受一些挫折。”我经常听到这样的说法。
更可悲的是,那些高中毕业生在上过几周课之后对我说,“我不知道我是怎么拿到毕业文凭的。”
让没有掌握知识的学生顺利过关,既欺骗了学生自己,也欺骗了那些期望他们具备基本技能的雇主。
我们为这种不诚实的行为找借口:如果环境太糟糕,孩子们就会没法学习。似乎没有人曾想过,除非意识
到危机,大多数孩子是不会把学业放在首位的。他们宁愿混日子。
我在夜校遇到的很多学生都决心把学业放在首位。他们的动机是渴望寻求一份更好的职业或者保持现
有的职位。对于失败他们都有着积极的忧患意识。
每个年龄段的人都能够克服他们存在的问题,但是他们需要一个理由去这样做。通常,年轻人不能像
我的成年学生那样成熟地看待学业。而对失败的恐惧感能够同时激励两者。

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